Project 1a: Data Structures, version 1.0

Unlike the previous project, this project is broken into three parts. This is to keep you on the right track. Each part will be due separately. You must have the same partner (if applicable) for all three parts.

This project is brand new. Please let us know on Piazza if you spot any bugs or issues.


In project 1, we will build implementations of a "Double Ended Queue" using both lists and arrays. We will later learn how to write our own tests for those data structures, and finally we will use those data structures to solve a small real world problem.

Project 1a is the implementation of the data structures. In this part of the project you will create exactly two Java files: and, with public methods listed below.

Unlike project 0, we will provide relatively little scaffolding. In other words, we'll say what you should do, but not how.

For this project, you are allowed to work with a partner. If you'd like to work with a partner sign up here. You may not work with the same person that you worked with on project 0. While we will not absolutely require that you have the same level of experience for this project, we still recommend it.

Getting the Skeleton Files

As with project 0, you should start by downloading the skeleton files. The directions are repeated below.

To do this, head to the folder containing your copy of your repository. For example, if your login is 'agz', then head to the 'agz' folder (or any subdirectory). If you're working with a partner, you should instead clone your partner repository, e.g. git clone

If you're working solo, you should now be in your personal repo folder, e.g. agz. If you're working with a partner, your computers should both be in the proj1-bqd-aba folder that was created when you cloned the repo.

Now we'll make sure you have the latest copy of the skeleton files with by using git pull skeleton master. If you're using your partner repo, you'll also need to set the remote just like we did in lab1 using the git remote add skeleton command.

If you find yourself faced with a strange text editor or a merge conflict, see the project 0 directions for how to proceed.

Once you've successfully merged, you should see a proj1 directory appear with files that match the skeleton repostiory.

If you get some sort of error, STOP and either figure it out by carefully reading the the git guide or seek help at OH or Piazza. You'll potentially save yourself a lot of trouble vs. guess-and-check with git commands. If you find yourself trying to use commands you Google like force push, don't.

The only provided file in the skeleton is This file provides examples of how you might write tests to verify the correctness of your code. To encourage self-sufficiency in testing, we will not be putting up the autograder until 2/1. We strongly encourage you try out the given tests, as well as to write your own.

The provided tests involve a lot of custom logic (e.g. printing error messages, keeping track of whether all tests have passed, printing tests names, etc.). In part B of this project, we will write so-called JUnit tests, which will do most of this work for us. Writing tests for part A will therefore make part B easier, since you will have already thought about testing.

To use the sample test, you must uncomment the lines in the sample tests. Only uncomment a test once you have implemented all of the methods used by that test (otherwise it won't compile).

The Deque API

The double ended queue is very similar to the SList and AList classes that we've discussed in class. Specifically, any Deque implementation must have exactly the following operations:

Your code must for both implementations ( and must include all of these public methods, in addition to any listed below in the section for the respective implementations.

Your class should accept any generic type (not just integers). For information on creating and using generic data structures, see lecture 5. Make sure to pay close attention to the rules of thumb on the last slide about generics.

Linked List Deque

Note: We covered everything needed in lecture to do this part on Jan 27 and Jan 29.

As your first of two Deque implementations, you'll build the LinkedListDeque class, which will be linked list based. Your operations are subject to the following rules:

In addition to the methods listed above, you should also include:

While this may sound simple, there are many design issues to consider, and you may find the implementation more challenging than you'd expect. Make sure to consult the lecture on doubly linked lists, particularly the slides on sentinel nodes: two sentinel topology circular sentinel topology. I prefer the circular approach. You are not allowed to use Java's LinkedList data structure (or any data structure from java.util) in your implementation.

Array Deque

Note: We'll have covered everything needed in lecture to do this part by Feb 1st (lecture 6)

As your second of two Deque implementations, you'll build the ArrayDeque class. This Deque must use arrays as the core data structure.

For this implementation, your operations are subject to the following rules:

We strongly recommend that you treat your array as circular for this exercise. In other words, if your front pointer is at position zero, and you addFirst, the front pointer should loop back around to the end of the array (so the new front item in the deque will be the last item in the underlying array). This will result in far fewer headaches than non-circular approaches. See the project 1 demo slides for more details.

The signature of the constructor should be public ArrayDeque(). That is, you need only worry about initializing empty ArrayDeques.


Frequently Asked Questions

How should I print the items in my deque when I don't know their type?

It's fine to use the default String that will be printed (this string comes from an Object's implementation of toString(), which we'll talk more about later this semester). For example, if you called the generic type in your class Jumanji, to print Jumanji j, you can call System.out.print(j).

I can't get Java to create an array of generic objects!

Use the strange syntax we saw in February 1st's lecture, i.e. Item[] a = (Item[]) new Object[1000];

I tried that but I'm getting a compiler warning.

Sorry, this is something they messed up when they introduced generics into Java. There's no nice way around it. Enjoy your compiler warning. We'll talk more about this in a few weeks.

How do I make my arrows point to particular fields of a data structure. In your diagram from lecture it looked like the arrows were able to point to the middle of an array or at specific fields of a node.

Any time I drew an arrow in class that pointed at an object, the pointer was to the ENTIRE object, not a particular field of an object. In fact it is impossible for a reference to point to the fields of an object in Java.